With the implementation of new, innovative assessment methods such the assessment of competence or outcomes, the use of peer-evaluation and portfolios of learning, there may be uncertainty about the allocation of marks. New methods of marking are questioned for rigour, validity and reliability. Changing thinking about assessment theory is a confounding factor in how to allocate marks appropriately. There has been a shift from the previously dominant theory of the psychometric approach in marking to an incorporation of assessment theory underpinned by constructs from the social sciences. One example of this change is the use of either norm-referenced or criterion-referenced methods of allocating marks. What is the difference and how does one decide which marking method is more suited to the assessment task? (More)